Abstracts (first author)
Novel papillomaviruses in free-ranging Iberian bats challenge the dogmas: interspecies transmission, no virus-host coevolution and evidences for recombinationPDF
Papillomaviridae are a wide and divergent family of small, non-encapsulated dsDNA viruses that infect most vertebrates. Animal PV diversity is poorly sampled, and thence most of our hypotheses about PV evolution are biased because of the clinical focus on PV research. We communicate here the sequencing and cloning of five new PVs isolated from different bat species: Eidolon helvum PV type 1 (EhelPV1), Rhinolophus ferrumequinum PV type 1 (RferPV1), Eptesicus serotinus PV type 1 (EserPV1), Eptesicus serotinus PV type 2 (EserPV2) and Eptesicus serotinus PV type 3 (EserPV3). These novel PVs were isolated from three different bat families: Pteropodidae, Rhinolophidae y Vespertilionidae, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships within Papillomaviridae were inferred by means of maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and supernetwork analyses. Further, we have studied the prevalence of EserPV1, 2 and 3 in a number of E. serotinus and E. isabellinus bat colonies in the Iberian peninsula. There are currently nine bat PVs, and they are not monophyletic: five of them belong to the Lamda+Mu PVs crowngroup, one to the Alpha+Omicron PVs crowngroup, and three of them are close to root and their precise phylogenetic positions cannot be inferred with certainty. The increased sampling of the Lambda+Mu PV crowngroup is welcome, as it hosts viruses infecting diverse hosts (carnivores, chiroptera, primates, rodents and lagomorpha), with diverse tropisms (cutaneous and mucosal) and with divergent clinical manifestations of the infections (asymptomatic, benign proliferations and malignant tumours). Our results question once again the old assumption of virus-host coevolution for the PVs and reinforce the hypothesis of a biphasic evolution in the story of the PVs: an initial adaptive radiation linked to the definition of new niches during the evolution of mammalian skin that generated the ancestral PV crowngroups, followed by a limited co-especiation between viruses and hosts.