Abstracts (first author)

Invited Speaker 

Experimental insights into the processes driving genome evolution

Author(s): Nosil P, Gompert Z, Parchman T, Buerkle A, Comeault A, Farkas T, Feder J

Summary:

Understanding the processes driving patterns of genome variation is a major goal in biology. Although observational genome scans have usefully quantified heterogeneity in levels of genetic differentiation across the genome, it can be problematic to infer evolutionary process and causation from such genome scans alone because a particular pattern of genomic divergence could arise via various combinations of selection, recombination, drift, gene flow, mutation, and demographic history. In this regard, experiments have the potential to isolate the contributions of specific evolutionary processes to patterns of genome variation. In this talk, I describe the processes driving and constraining genome evolution in experimental populations of stick insects that were transplanted to novel host-plant and climatic environments in the wild. I contrast the experimental results with genome variation among long-established natural populations and discuss the collective empirical results in light of theory. The talk will illustrate how combined experimental and genomic approaches can move the field of genomics towards becoming a more predictive science.



Abstracts (coauthor)

Summary:

Although most of biodiversity on Earth is thought to be the product of adaptive radiation, very little is known about its genomic basis. Adaptation and speciation with gene-flow, probably common in adaptive radiations, might result in distinctive patterns of genomic divergence between species and populations. But how much do these micro-evolutionary processes determine the observable macro-evolutionary patterns of species differences and similarities? Recent field experiments with the stick insect species Timema cristinae from California have demonstrated significant selection on a number of genomic loci when populations were transplanted to non-native hosts or to different elevations, featuring different climates. Building upon these results we here investigate genomic divergence across several Timema species and populations, and its correlation with divergent and convergent adaptation. We have sampled over 1500 individuals from 110 populations of 11 species of Timema stick insects. This collection comprises samples from 10 different host plants, covering an altitudinal range of 2800 meters. Using restriction site associated DNA tag sequencing and whole genome resequencing we reveal the patterns of genomic divergence between species and populations from similar and divergent environments. We expect to learn if divergence at certain loci is correlated with divergent adaptation, and how this pattern changes with phylogenetic relatedness. Are the demonstrated short-term changes in allele frequency matching the genomic divergence on a macro-evolutionary time scale in Timema stick insects? Answering this question will advance our knowledge about the influence of micro-evolutionary ecological adaptation on genome evolution in adaptive radiations.

Contacts

Chairman: Octávio S. Paulo
Tel: 00 351 217500614 direct
Tel: 00 351 217500000 ext22359
Fax: 00 351 217500028
email: mail@eseb2013.com

Address

XIV Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology

Organization Team
Department of Animal Biology (DBA)
Faculty of Sciences of the University of Lisbon
P-1749-016 Lisbon
Portugal

Website

Computational Biology & Population Genomics Group 
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